Unia (Interfederal Centre for Equal Opportunities)


Unia is an interfederal, independent public service specialising in policy on equal opportunity and non-discrimination. Founded on human rights, its mission is to promote equal opportunities and rights for all citizens and to fight against discrimination. This mission is conducted with a view to contribute to collective development and in a spirit of dialogue, collaboration and respect.

Brief history

Unia was created pursuant to the law of 15 February 1993. This law stipulates that Unia is a public service, which is wholly independent in the fulfilment of its statutory missions and carries out its duties in a spirit of dialogue and in cooperation with other players. This makes Unia an institution with a unique and distinctive character, its status differing from that of federal administrations, semi-public institutions or state-owned companies.

When it was founded, Unia’s sole area of competence was the fight against racism. Today its remit is much more wide-ranging, as its mission is to promote equal opportunities and the fight against all forms of distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on nationality, alleged race, skin colour, ancestry, national or ethnic origin, but also sexual orientation, civil status, birth, wealth, age, religious or philosophical conviction, current or future state of health, disability, political beliefs, physical or genetic characteristics, or social background. Gender-related matters fall under the remit of our sister institution, the Institute for the Equality of Women and Men.

During the Interministerial Conference of 12 July 2011 and in application of Article 33, paragraph 2 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the federal government, the regions and the communities also decided to grant Unia the mandate of ‘independent mechanism to promote, protect and monitor implementation of the Convention’. To this end, a Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Service was set up, with the aim of ensuring promotion, protection and monitoring of implementation of the Convention.

In July 2012 the federal government, the regions and the communities concluded an agreement aimed at turning Unia, currently a federal institution, into an interfederal institution for the fight against discrimination. Unia thus sees its anti-discrimination mission extended to take in the regions’ and communities’ areas of competence, in addition to the federal remit.
Any citizen in the country will be able to report to a single body if he/she is the victim of discrimination based on the criteria laid down by the law. Moreover, this agreement also opens up new possibilities for consultation and cooperation between the country’s different authorities in the fight against discrimination, whilst still guaranteeing respect for the autonomy and areas of competence of each of the (federal or federated) entities.

The agreement furthermore stipulates that Unia’s current missions in the field of the analysis of migratory movements, fundamental rights of foreigners and the trade in human beings will be entrusted to a separate federal institute. Further to this agreement, in December the council of ministers approved two bills: one concerns approval of the cooperation agreement of 23 July 2012 which creates an interfederal centre for equal opportunities and opposition to racism and discrimination (Unia); The other creates a federal centre for the analysis of migratory flows, protection of the fundamental rights of foreigners, and the fight against the trade in human beings (Myria).

Mandate Type

Combined tribunal-type and promotion-type

Litigation power:

  • Representing in front of courts
  • Bringing proceedings in own name
  • Intervening before the court
  • Formally deciding on complaints (e.g. decision or recommendation addressed to the parties) Not legally binding


2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Activities aimed at supporting vulnerable groups ( e.g. through trainings )
Activities aimed at supporting duty bearers such as employers and service providers (e.g. through trainings, guidance material, practical support, etc.)
Communication activities (e.g. awareness raising campaigns)
Recommendations on discrimination issues
Publications and reports
Research projects (including surveys)

Our institution has a mandate to deal with:

  • UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)
  • Hate crime
  • Hate speech

Other statistics:

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Number of inquiries handled per year (all contact even if not resulting in a formal complaint)36084162422637134627455456196602748984789466
Number of cases handled per year (case files opened and processed according to your procedures)13431277131614061670159619072017219223432189
Number of media appearances per year (major newspapers/magazines/websites/blogs, TV + radio channels) - does not include social media


  • Single headed equality body (led by director or ombudsman/commissioner)

Management details

The appointment of the directors is a prerogative of the interfederal Board.

Procedure for nomination and appointment of management and board

The Board of Directors of Unia, the Interfederal Centre for Equal Opportunities consists of 21 members appointed by the Parliaments:

  • 10 by the federal Chamber of Representatives
  • 4 by the Flemish Parliament
  • 2 by the Walloon Parliament
  • 2 by the Parliament of the French Community (Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles)
  • 2 by the Brussels Parliament
  • 1 by the Parliament of the German-speaking Community

Four chambers have been created within the interfederal Board (Flemish, Brussels, French-speaking and Federal) which will deal with issues that fall exclusively with their competence.

The appointment of the directors and of any coordinators will be a prerogative of the interfederal Board.

Number of staff dealing with equality issues

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

Grounds and fields of discrimination covered by the equality body

Grounds / Fields Employment Education Housing Social Protection & Healthcare Goods and Services Other
Gender Identity
Race and Ethnic Origin
Sexual Orientation
Religion & Belief
Other grounds:

Political beliefs, trade union beliefs, social status, health condition, wealth, civil status, physical characteristics, birth, social background

Mandate covers:

  • Public sector
  • Private sector

Operating budget in euros

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

Operating budget in euros for the parts of the organisation dealing with equality issues (all types of functions)

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

We are accountable to

  • National Parliament